How to make [compost] at home

Posted by 速水ゆきえ on

Utilization of vegetable scraps to compost

Stir fry broccoli stalks, pickle and peel watermelon peels and orange peels, and make soup with vegetable peels. Vegetable scraps are more than you think, and the amount that can be used is limited. By throwing it away as waste, the kitchen can be easily cleaned, and even if there are various ways to use it, I think that if you don't have time or think it's troublesome, you'll just throw it away. However, there is a way to recycle food waste that has finally become unmanageable in a new way.

Have you ever heard the word "composting"?


Why compost?

Simply put, composting keeps the soil healthy and viable by returning important nutrients to the soil. If you think about it, plants need nutrients from the soil to grow, so by growing fruits and vegetables and filling the skins, those important nutrients leave the soil and never return. Healthy soil requires healthy compost.

Benefits of composting

• Nutrient-rich fertilizers are made from household waste.
(Waste turns into resources and is reused for gardening and home gardening)
・It saves you the trouble of throwing away food waste, which leads to a reduction in the number of garbage bags.

compost

Will these vegetable wastes decompose and return to the soil?

Vegetable waste requires a mixture of oxygen, moisture, micro-organisms and heat to decompose. Landfills are so compacted that oxygen remains untouched by organic matter and without it begins to decompose, releasing methane into the atmosphere. Methane is 72% more powerful than CO2. In short, methane accelerates climate-related problems and pollutes the environment.

What should we do even if we recognize that it is important not to waste vegetable scraps and not to throw them away?


First you need the environmental conditions to compost. Do you consume the compost you make yourself, or do you provide the compost to the maker? . If you have a garden with enough space, it can be easily composted and even a pleasure. Composting at home such as apartments cannot be returned to nature, so it takes a little time and effort, but nature is always facing us. Our lives are made possible by nature. Leaves fall from the trees and the fallen leaves begin to decompose, fertilizing the soil and giving life to new plants. It's a natural cycle, and composting food waste, biodegradable materials, and garden waste allows us to simulate regeneration in our lives.


Composting and methane gasification


Leftover food and vegetable scraps are not only turned into manure and compost.

Biogas is generated when food waste (leftover food, etc.), combustible waste, livestock feces and urine, etc. are decomposed by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen. Since this gas is flammable, it can be used as power generation and gas. It is wonderful to be able to turn waste into compost and generate electricity.

Here are nine tips for a successful home composting system and a list of what can and cannot be composted.

1. Prepare an airtight container to compost garbage

Cardboard boxes or styrofoam handmade items can be used as substitutes, but depending on the location, you may need to prepare a tight lid to prevent food waste from being exposed to wild animals.

2. Decide where to place the compost

The best location is flat, well-drained, sunny and protected from rain. If it is too dry, it will not ferment and if it is too moist, it will rot and cause a bad smell, so keep the humidity at about 60%. (The moisture level is about the same as squeezing the brewed tea leaves.)

3. Portion distribution of brown and green

A compost pile has two main components, a carbon-rich component and a nitrogen-rich component. The Carbon Group (Brown) includes materials such as dead leaves, hay, paper, cardboard, sawdust, nut shells, and wood chips. The nitrogen group (greens) includes fruit and vegetable scraps, weeds, coffee grounds, fresh herbs, and egg shells. A balance of these groups is preferable for composting. If there is too much food waste, it will rot, so in such a case, it is important to reduce the amount of household waste by mixing dry grass, leaves, and dry soil, or by covering the surface with soil to prevent odors. let's see

4.Creating an environment to collect and store garbage

Every time there is raw garbage, it is difficult to carry it to the balcony where it is installed, so please separate it into containers that can be stored from the time you start cooking until the end of cleaning up, or by squeezing out the water and storing it in the freezer so that it can be easily composted. It's easy to do. See below for a list of foods and materials that can and cannot be composted.

5. Collect and store brown (carbon-rich) material.

It is recommended to keep the carbon group (brown) ready to mix with food waste. If you don't have dead leaves, add humus and mix it in to quickly decompose the garbage.

6. How to ferment in good condition without spoiling

Place twigs, dead leaves, etc. in a container about 10 cm in order to improve drainage. Moderately sized stones also provide good drainage, with carbon groups above them (brown) and nitrogen groups above them (green). Add them alternately and mix so that the ratio is about 4 browns: 1 green.

7. Points to keep the inside of the compost container in good condition

・Mix food waste well to decompose quickly (take in fresh air)
・Do not add rotten old garbage ・Drain the garbage ・Keep the ratio of garbage to soil (1:4). .

8. How to decompose quickly

If you mix compost garbage accelerator containing humus, rice bran, and useful microorganisms, or peat moss (dehydrated, pulverized, and sorted humified peat) with the soil, it will decompose more quickly.

9. Use finished compost

Composting can take anywhere from 2 weeks to 12 months. In general, it is ready to use when it has a deep color, is crumbly, and has a pleasant earthy smell. The resulting humus can be used as topsoil for foliage plants and as a soil improver for vegetables and flowers in the garden. Some municipalities and local governments have compost purchase subsidies, so please check them out.


(compostable material)

Fruits and vegetables, egg shells, coffee grounds, coffee filters/tea bags, nut shells, paper, cardboard, weeds, twigs, houseplants, hay and straw, leaves,
Sawdust, wood chips, wooden toothbrush handles, cotton and wool rags, hair and fur, fireplace ash, bread, leftover food, fish and meat

(Materials that cannot be composted)

Black walnut leaves and twigs, coal and charcoal ash, dairy products, eggs, diseased or insect-infested plants, lard, meat, fish bones, animal droppings, cat litter, sand, chemically contaminated plants and Grass, coated paper, glossy paper, disposable chopsticks and toothpicks, nylon products, rotten garbage

Food waste is said to account for 30-40% of combustible waste.
According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of the Environment on the disposal of waste in Japan, the total amount of waste generated was 42.72 million tons, and the amount of waste generated per person was 918 grams. It is about the same amount as two 500ml plastic bottled drinking water.

Composting is easy even if you don't have a garden at home and don't have enough time because you're too busy.
There is a stylish compost that you can share with your living space.

It's easy to get started with a carbon filter that prevents odors and a porous lid.
Would you like to start recycling garbage?

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